The sex of birds is determined by the inheritance of sex chromosomes ZZ male and ZW female. Genes carried on one or both of these sex chromosomes control sexual differentiation during embryonic life, producing testes in males ZZ and ovaries in females ZW. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of avian sex determination and gonadal development. Most recently, it has been shown that sex is cell autonomous in birds. Evidence from gynandromorphic chickens male on one side, female on the other points to the likelihood that sex is determined directly in each cell of the body, independently of, or in addition to, hormonal signalling. Hence, sex-determining genes may operate not only in the gonads, to produce testes or ovaries, but also throughout cells of the body.
Since prostitution is a controversial issue, with extensive moral, policy and political implications, it is not surprising that my article has been critiqued by proponents of the Sex Purchase Ban, and by activists and academics working to abolish prostitution. I consider their critique to be misinformed, distorted, and at times tendentious. As shown in these two works and in the article below, I have never claimed to document the opinions of all sex workers in Sweden, only those whom I had interviewed. Also, the opinions of sex workers about Swedish prostitution policy expressed in this article are hardly unique. Although proponents of the Sex Purchase Ban have targeted me personally treating me as some kind of tool of the sex industry, there are a number of additional reports that reveal similar critiques of Swedish sex work policy from a sex workers' perspective.
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Metrics details. Disruption of axonal transport plays a pivotal role in diabetic neuropathy. A sex-dimorphism exists in the incidence and symptomatology of diabetic neuropathy; however, no studies so far have addressed sex differences in axonal motor proteins expression in early diabetes as well as the possible involvement of neuroactive steroids. Interestingly, recent data point to a role for mitochondria in the sexual dimorphism of neurodegenerative diseases.